Socio-Cultural Sphere As Environment For The Formation Of Human Capital: Russia Against The Backdrop Of Global Trends

Abstract :

The relevance of the research is due to the increasing role of human capital in the formation and development of post-industrial society. Physical force was the leading factor of production in pre-industrial society, machinery dominated in industrial society, and human capital became a leading factor in post-industrial society. The social and cultural sphere is the environment for the formation of human capital. Its institutions generate human capital through training, medical care, and cultural development. Thus, the quality of human capital depends on the quality of services provided by social and cultural institutions.

Human capital accounts for most of the national wealth of the developed world. In 2014 the share of human capital in the total national wealth of developed countries was 70-75%, while in Russia it was only 49%. In the 2016 HDI ranking, Russia was ranked 49th, and thus was in the group of the countries with a high level of HDI. The world rating of Russia's HDI is declining mainly due to the value of life expectancy. The gap between our country and the leader of the rating on this indicator was 12.3 years.

The most important sphere of formation and realization of human capital is the social and cultural sphere. The narrow interpretation of the socio-cultural sphere includes health, education and culture. It is of great interest to assess the effectiveness of the national health system, education and culture and their impact on the quality of human capital.

It is obvious that all other types of human capital are based on health capital. In the 2016 public health efficiency rating, Hong Kong was the leader (88.9 points) and Russia was the outsider (24.3 points). The last place is due to the low life expectancy of the population (70.37 years); the cost of medical services per capita ($ 893); the share of health expenditures (7.07% of GDP). Education indirectly contributes to the growth of human health capital and social well-being. The first place in the rating of the effectiveness of the education system in 2016 belonged to the United States, Indonesia took the last place (36.9), and Russia took the 34th place. Cultural capital acts as a factor of a person's creative and intellectual potential. In the ranking of national brands, Russia took the 25th place in 2014, the 22nd place in 2015, the 22nd place in 2016, the 23rd place in 2017.

The functioning of public health system, education and culture should be aimed at creating a generation of healthy, educated and cultured professionals. The coordinated development of these sectors of the socio-cultural sphere will ensure the modernization of the country's human capital, and therefore the entire economic system of Russia.